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What is a Data Pipeline? A Comprehensive Guide

January 17th, 2024

what is a data pipeline

Data pipelines are a fundamental component of modern data-driven organizations as they ensure data flows efficiently and reliably through an organization’s data ecosystem. In this article, we will explore the concept of data pipelines, their key components, their various use cases and the benefits they offer. Let’s dive in and discover how pipelines can revolutionize your data-driven operations.

What is a Data Pipeline? 

A data pipeline is a method of transporting data from one place to another. Acting as a conduit for data, these pipelines enable efficient processing, transformation, and delivery of data to the desired location. By orchestrating these processes, they streamline data operations and enhance data quality management.

Evolution of Data Pipelines Architecture: From CPU Automation to Real-Time Flow

Imagine a scenario without where one system carries out all of the tasks. Extraction, cleansing, reconciling – all of them being performed in one place.

This isn’t an ideal situation as this requires massive storage and computing power. It is also very inefficient. Consequently, automated data pipelines were built to connect data from different places and in different stages.

Data pipelines have evolved over the past four decades. Initially, they were technically non-existent. Data analysts had to manually transfer data from source to destination. They used to move data in batches once a day, and this reduced time-to-insight.

Over time, these pipelines became more flexible, facilitating the movement of data from cloud sources to cloud destinations, such as AWS and Snowflake. In today’s context, they focus on efficiently ingesting data, particularly real-time data, and the need for automation and orchestration.

Types of Data Pipelines

There are several types of data pipelines, each serving specific purposes:

  • Batch Pipelines: These pipelines process data in large volumes at scheduled intervals. They are ideal for handling historical data analysis, offline reporting, and batch-oriented tasks.
  • Real-time Pipelines: These pipelines process data in near real-time or with low latency. They are designed for streaming data sources, such as sensors, logs, or social media feeds. Real-time pipelines enable immediate analysis and response to emerging trends, anomalies, or events, making them critical for applications like fraud detection, real-time analytics, and monitoring systems.
  • ETL Pipelines: ETL pipelines are widely used for data integration and data warehousing. They involve extracting data from various sources, transforming it into a consistent format, and loading it into a target system. ETL pipelines are typically batch-oriented but can be augmented with real-time components for more dynamic data processing.
  • ELT Pipelines: ELT (extract, load, transform) pipelines are similar to ETL pipelines, but with a different sequence of steps. In ELT, data is first loaded into a target system, such as a data lake or data warehouse, and then transformed as needed. This approach leverages the processing power and scalability of modern storage systems, allowing transformations to be performed directly on the loaded data.
  • Event-driven Pipelines: These pipelines are triggered by specific events or triggers, such as new data arrival or system events. They enable real-time or near real-time data processing and are often used in complex event processing, IoT applications, and event-based architectures.

Data Pipeline vs ETL

These two terms can often confuse people. The main difference between a data pipeline and an ETL pipeline is that an ETL pipeline is a subset of data pipelines. Data pipelines are a general term for moving data from a source to a destination in a structured flow. ETL pipelines are a specific type of pipeline for transforming and loading data.

Here are the fundamental differences between data pipelines and ETL

Data Pipeline:

  1. Data Movement and Integration: Data pipelines are primarily focused on moving data from one system to another and integrating data from various sources. They enable the efficient and real-time transfer of data between systems or services.
  2. Flexibility: They can be more flexible and versatile compared to ETL processes. They are often used for real-time data streaming, batch processing, or both, depending on the use case.
  3. Streaming Data: Data pipelines are well-suited for handling streaming data, such as data generated continuously from IoT devices, social media, or web applications.
  4. Near Real-Time Processing: Data pipelines are more suitable for applications requiring up-to-the-minute insights as they can process and deliver data in near real-time
  5. Use Cases: Common use cases for data pipelines include log and event processing, real-time analytics, data replication, and data synchronization.

ETL (Extract, Transform, Load):

  1. Structured Process: ETL processes follow a structured sequence of tasks: data extraction from source systems, data transformation to meet business requirements, and data loading into a target repository (often a data warehouse).
  2. Batch Processing: ETL processes are typically designed for batch processing, where data is collected over a period (e.g., daily or hourly) and transformed before it is loaded into the target system.
  3. Complex Transformations: ETL is the right choice in case you need to perform complex data transformations, such as aggregations, data cleansing, and data enrichment
  4. Data Warehousing: You should opt for ETL processes when you need to consolidate data from multiple source and transform it to support business intelligence and reporting.
  5. Historical Analysis: ETL processes are suitable for historical data analysis and reporting, where data is stored in a structured format, optimized for querying and analysis.


  1. Data Transformation: Both data pipelines and ETL processes involve data transformation, but the complexity and timing of these transformations differ.
  2. Data Quality: Ensuring data quality is important in both data pipelines and ETL processes.
  3. Monitoring and Logging: Both require monitoring and logging capabilities to track data movement, transformation, and errors.

Building a Data Pipeline – Six Main Stages

Building an efficient system for consolidating data requires careful planning and setup. There are typically six main stages in the process:

  1. Identifying Data Sources: The first step is to identify and understand the data sources. These could be databases, APIs, files, data lakes, external services, or IoT devices. Determine the format, structure, and location of the data..
  2. Data Integration: Extract and combine data from the identified sources using data connectors. This may involve querying databases, fetching data from APIs, reading files, or capturing streaming data.
  3. Data Transformation: After extracting data, transform and cleanse it to ensure its quality and consistency. Data transformation involves tasks such as data cleaning, filtering, aggregating, merging, and enriching. This stage ensures that the data is in the desired format and structure for analysis and consumption.
  4. Data Loading: After transforming, load the data into the target system or repository for storage, analysis, or further processing. During the loading stage, the pipelines transfer the transformed data to data warehouses, data lakes, or other storage solutions. This enables end-users or downstream applications to access and utilize the data effectively.
  5. Automation and Scheduling: Set up automation and scheduling mechanisms to execute the data pipeline at regular intervals or in response to specific events. Automation minimizes manual intervention and ensures data is always up-to-date.
  6. Monitoring and Evaluating: Implement robust monitoring and metrics to track the health and performance of the data architecture. Set up alerts to notify you of issues or anomalies that require attention. This stage helps optimize your data pipelines to ensure maximum efficiency in moving data.

Benefits of a Data Pipeline

benefits of data pipelines

If put in simple words, data pipeline allow organizations to unlock the full potential of their data assets. Here are some of  their key benefits:

  1. Increased Efficiency

Data pipelines automate data workflows, reducing manual effort and increasing overall efficiency in data processing. By streamlining data operations, organizations can optimize resource utilization and minimize costs associated with manual data handling.

  1. Greater Scalability

They can handle large volumes of data, allowing organizations to scale their operations as their data needs grow. By adopting a scalable architecture, businesses can accommodate increasing data demands without compromising performance.

  1. Data Quality Improvements

Through data cleansing and transformation processes, they enhance data quality and ensure accuracy for analysis and decision-making. By maintaining high data quality standards, organizations can rely on trustworthy insights to drive their business activities.

  1. Real-time Insights

Real-time data enables organizations to receive up-to-date information for immediate action. By leveraging timely data insights, businesses can make agile and proactive decisions, gaining a competitive advantage in dynamic market conditions.

  1. Cost-effectiveness

They optimize resource utilization, minimizing costs associated with manual data handling and processing. By reducing the time and effort required for data operations, organizations can allocate resources efficiently and achieve cost-effectiveness.

Uses of a Data Pipeline: Common Applications for Harnessing Data

Data pipelines serve a multitude of purposes across industries, empowering organizations with timely insights and data-driven decision-making. They are utilized in numerous industries to enhance the efficiency of data flow within organizations.

For instance, in the finance sector, they help integrate stock prices and transaction records, enabling financial institutions to enhance risk management, detect fraud, and ensure regulatory compliance.

In the healthcare industry, pipelines integrate electronic health records and lab results, contributing to improved patient monitoring, population health management, and clinical research.

In the retail and e-commerce sector, they integrate customer data from e-commerce platforms and point-of-sale systems, allowing for effective inventory management, customer segmentation, and personalized marketing strategies.

Some more general use cases:

  1. Real-time Analytics

Data pipelines enable organizations to collect, process, and analyze data in real time. By harnessing the power of real-time analytics, businesses can make timely decisions, react swiftly to market changes, and gain a competitive edge.

  1. Data Integration

Data pipelines consolidate data using data connectors from various sources, including databases, APIs, and third-party platforms, into a unified format for analysis and reporting. This integration allows organizations to harness the full potential of their data assets and obtain a holistic view of their operations.

  1. Data Migration

They facilitate smooth and efficient data migration from legacy systems to modern infrastructure. By ensuring a seamless transition without disruption, organizations can leverage advanced technologies and drive innovation.

  1. Machine Learning and AI

They provide a seamless flow of data for training machine learning models. This enables organizations to develop predictive analytics, automate processes, and unlock the power of artificial intelligence to drive their business forward.

  1. Business Intelligence

Data pipelines support the extraction and transformation of data to generate meaningful insights. By harnessing the power of business intelligence, organizations can make data-driven decisions, identify trends, and devise effective strategies.

Working with Data Pipeline Tools

Data pipeline tools make it easier to build data pipelines as mostly they are code-free these days and offer a visual interface. However, choosing the right tool is a critical decision for any organization. The right tool should provide connectivity to a wide range of databases, APIs, cloud destinations, etc. It should also provide support for real-time data integration and both ETL and ELT. An ideal tool should scalable; it should be be able to handle growing data volumes and concurrent users. It should allow horizontal scaling to handle more nodes and increased user demand.

Here are some tools that you can consider:

  • Astera Centerprise: A no-code data management solution that enables you to build enterprise-grade data pipelines in minutes. It allows you to create and schedule ETL and ELT pipelines within a simple, drag and drop interface. It also supports extensive connectivity to industry-leading databases and warehouses. Plus, you can automate all flows and monitor data in real-time and take advantage of advanced built-in transformations, data quality, version control and security features. It is a powerful tool that has been designed keeping in mind the needs of technical and non-technical users alike.
  • Dataddo: Dataddo is a cloud-based code-free tool for building ETL pipelines. It connects with your existing stack seamlessly, along with support for multiple connectors.
  • Informatica: Informatica is another enterprise-grade tool for building data pipelines. The tool is equipped with exhaustive features such as variety of connectivity options and different data sources. Informatica is however is a little pricier than other tools in the market.
  • Hevodata: Hevodata comes with a user-friendly graphical interface which makes it easier to build data pipelines. The tool supports eady-to-use integrations across Databases, SaaS Applications, Cloud Storage. The unique thing about hevodata is its volume-based pricing, which makes it ideal for small to mid-size businesses.

Emerging Trends in Data Pipelines

Beyond the common use cases, data pipelines have applications in various advanced scenarios and emerging trends:

  • Real-time Personalization: Pipelines enable real-time personalization by analyzing user behavior data and delivering personalized content or recommendations in real time.
  • Internet of Things (IoT) Data Processing: With the rise of IoT devices, data integration is used to ingest, process, and analyze massive amounts of sensor data generated by IoT devices, enabling real-time insights and automation.
  • Data Mesh: The data mesh concept decentralizes them and establishes domain-oriented, self-serve data infrastructure. It promotes data ownership, autonomy, and easy access to data, leading to improved scalability and agility in data processing.
  • Federated Learning: They support federated learning approaches, where machine learning models are trained collaboratively on distributed data sources while maintaining data privacy and security.
  • Explainable AI: They can incorporate techniques for generating explainable AI models, providing transparency and interpretability in complex machine learning models.


In conclusion, data pipelines play a vital role in the modern landscape, facilitating efficient data processing, integration, and analysis. By leveraging the power of pipelines, organizations can enhance decision-making, improve operational efficiency, and gain valuable insights from their data.

Data integration tools like Astera Centerprise simplify the creation of end-to-end data flows. With its user-friendly interface, pre-built connectors, and comprehensive functionality, Centerprise streamlines the process of building and managing  pipelines, ensuring seamless data movement and delivering actionable insights for organizations.

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