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EDI Standards: A Comprehensive Guide

Mariam Anwar

Product Marketer

August 28th, 2023

Industries around the world are increasingly recognizing the pivotal role of Electronic Data Interchange (EDI) standards in streamlining operations and enabling seamless communication. From retail and healthcare to manufacturing and logistics, businesses across a diverse array of sectors are embracing EDI as the universal language of data exchange.  In fact, the global EDI software market is projected to reach a substantial value of $4.52 billion by 2030. 

Businesses operating in different regions have unique requirements and protocols. The ability to adapt to these variations is essential for organizations seeking successful cross-border collaborations and efficient internal processes. Regardless of the industry or geographical location, adopting EDI standards gives businesses the power to optimize their operations, strengthen collaboration, and unlock new opportunities for growth in the digital era. 

What are EDI Standards? 

EDI is the electronic exchange of structured business data between trading partners. EDI standards define the formats, structures, and rules that enable seamless data interchange. By adhering to these standards, organizations can ensure consistent and accurate data transmission, regardless of the systems or software employed. 

EDI standards provide a common language for data exchange and establish a framework for data formatting, message structure, and content. EDIFACT (Electronic Data Interchange for Administration, Commerce, and Transport) and ANSI X12 (American National Standards Institute X12) are two commonly used EDI standards. The former is widely used across Europe, while ANSI X12 is prevalent in North America. 

EDIFACT is a standard that allows businesses to exchange electronic documents with each other. The EDIFACT standard was developed by the United Nations Economic Commission for Europe (UNECE) in 1987. It was created to provide a universal format for electronic data interchange (EDI) between different companies and industries, regardless of their location or the computer systems they use. 

ANSI X12 was created in 1979 by the ANSI subsidiary Accredited Standards Committee (ASC). This standard describes the structure and content of electronic data interchange (EDI) documents that businesses use to exchange transaction information. ANSI X12 is flexible and supports a variety of documents, including purchase orders, invoices, and shipping notices, facilitating seamless communication and collaboration between different organizations while ensuring the security and integrity of sensitive business information. 

Four Key Principles of EDI Standards 

EDI relies on several components to facilitate efficient and standardized data exchange between trading partners. The following key components are integral to EDI standards: 

  1. Syntax: Syntax encompasses the rules and conventions governing the structure and formatting of EDI data. It establishes a standardized language for representing information. For example, widely used syntaxes like EDIFACT and ANSI X12 define specific guidelines for organizing segments, data elements, and control structures within an EDI message.  
  2. Codes: Codes are standardized values used in EDI to represent specific information. They provide a common language for identifying and describing various attributes. For instance, the UN/EDIFACT Product Code (UNPC) assigns unique values to different products, allowing trading partners to identify and reference items across EDI messages consistently. 
  3. Message Designs: Message designs define the structure and content of specific types of EDI messages. They serve as templates that outline the arrangement and sequence of data elements and segments within an EDI message. For example, a Purchase Order (PO) message design specifies segments for buyer and seller information, item details, quantities, prices, and delivery instructions.  
  4. Identification Values: Identification values are unique identifiers assigned to entities within an EDI message. They enable accurate referencing and identification of relevant information. For instance, Global Location Numbers (GLNs) are used to identify physical locations involved in supply chain processes uniquely.


Industry-Specific EDI Standards 

Industry-specific EDI standards are developed to cater to different sectors’ unique needs and complexities. They provide a standardized framework for exchanging essential business documents and information, ensuring consistency, data integrity, and seamless communication between trading partners. Let’s explore how specific industries leverage EDI standards to optimize their operations: 


In the healthcare industry, v. HL7 ensures interoperability between healthcare systems, allowing seamless communication between hospitals, clinics, laboratories, and other healthcare providers. By following standardized protocols, healthcare organizations can exchange patient information, medical records, and laboratory results efficiently, improving patient care. 


EDI standards significantly impact the retail industry, as they optimize supply chain management and enable efficient collaboration between retailers, suppliers, and distributors. Standards such as EDIFACT and X12 subsets are tailored to retail-specific transactions, including purchase orders, invoices, and product catalogs. By automating processes and ensuring accurate data exchange, retailers can streamline inventory management, enhance the order fulfillment process, and improve overall operational efficiency. 


The automotive industry relies on industry-specific EDI standards to streamline complex supply chains and ensure smooth coordination between manufacturers, suppliers, and distributors. Standards like Odette facilitate processes related to production schedules, shipping notices, and electronic cataloging. By adhering to these standards, automotive organizations can achieve efficient production planning, accurate tracking of shipments, and effective inventory management. 

ANSI X12: The Preferred Choice for Businesses Worldwide 

Businesses across various regions and industries rely on different EDI standards to meet their unique communication needs. However, amidst this diversity, there is a growing demand for a universal solution that transcends regional boundaries. This is where ANSI X12 emerges as the driving force behind seamless business communication. 

Initially developed to meet the needs of diverse industry sectors in North America, ANSI X12 has evolved into the go-to solution for companies across the globe. Its influence extends beyond its initial scope, gaining widespread recognition as a trusted and widely utilized framework in the global business community. Today, more than 300,000 companies worldwide rely on X12 EDI standards to facilitate their daily operations. Here are a few key reasons contributing to its extensive adoption: 

1. Robust and Standardized Framework  

ANSI X12 provides a robust and standardized framework for electronic data interchange, ensuring seamless communication across international trading partners. Global recognition and acceptance make ANSI X12 a reliable and trusted standard in international business transactions. 

2. Comprehensive Transaction Sets  

ANSI X12 offers a comprehensive collection of transaction sets that cater to various industries and business processes. From procurement to logistics, finance to inventory management, ANSI X12 covers a wide range of functional areas, making it adaptable to the diverse needs of businesses across different sectors. 

3. Extensive Documentation and Support Resources 

ANSI X12 is known for its extensive documentation, implementation guides, and support resources, which simplify the implementation and usage of the standard. This accessibility and availability of resources make it easier for businesses worldwide to adopt and integrate ANSI X12 into their existing systems and processes. 

4. Interoperability and Smooth Integration 

By adopting ANSI X12, businesses can enjoy the benefits of interoperability. The standard’s well-defined structure and formats enable seamless integration with existing systems and software solutions. This compatibility ensures smooth data flow and communication between different departments, systems, and trading partners, eliminating data silos and enhancing overall connectivity. 

5. Network Effect and Industry Adoption 

The widespread use of ANSI X12 by major multinational corporations and industry leaders creates a network effect, wherein businesses are motivated to align with the standard to connect with their trading partners seamlessly. This extensive adoption and preference for ANSI X12 establishes it as a de facto global standard for EDI, reinforcing its position as the preferred choice of businesses worldwide. 

x12 edi

Benefits of EDI Standards 

Implementing Electronic Data Interchange (EDI) standards revolutionizes how businesses exchange information, offering numerous benefits that streamline operations and enhance connectivity. Now, let’s delve into the key benefits of EDI standards: 

1) Streamlined Operations and Cost Savings 

EDI standards eliminate manual processes and reduce reliance on paper-based documentation. By automating data entry, validation, and transmission, organizations can streamline their operations and reduce administrative costs. Faster order processing, shorter transaction cycles, and improved efficiency lead to significant cost savings, enhanced productivity, and more satisfied customers. 

2) Enhanced Data Accuracy and Reliability 

EDI standards significantly improve the accuracy and reliability of data exchange. With structured and validated data transmitted electronically, the risk of errors such as typos or omissions is essentially eliminated. Standardized formats and automated validation processes ensure consistent data interpretation, enabling organizations to make informed decisions based on reliable information. 

3) Increased Business Connectivity and Collaboration: 

EDI standards facilitate seamless integration and connectivity with trading partners, enhancing collaboration across the supply chain. By adhering to common EDI standards, organizations effortlessly exchange information like purchase orders, invoices, and shipping notices. This optimizes supply chain management, improves visibility, and fosters stronger relationships with stakeholders, driving operational efficiency and faster decision-making. 

Benefits of EDI Standards

Final Thoughts 

Embracing EDI standards is not just a best practice but a strategic advantage that propels organizations into a dynamic and interconnected digital landscape. By establishing a common language for data exchange, EDI enables interoperability between diverse systems regardless of the underlying technologies or software platforms. This harmonization of data formats and protocols fosters better coordination, optimizes business processes, and enables businesses to allocate resources more efficiently. 

Astera EDIConnect is the ultimate solution for seamless EDI integration. With its comprehensive support for key EDI standards, including ANSI X12, HIPAA, and EDIFACT, EDIConnect allows enterprises to meet the requirements of all their trading partners effortlessly.  

The solution enables the secure and efficient exchange of EDI files, FTP, and email protocols, facilitating smooth and reliable data transmission. By leveraging Astera EDIConnect, organizations can enhance collaboration, streamline their data exchange processes, and achieve remarkable operational efficiency. 

Schedule a personalized demo today to witness how Astera EDIConnect effortlessly integrates with various EDI standards for smooth and efficient business transactions. 

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